(1596-1650) philosopher and mathematician; "I think therefore I am" goal of knowledge is certainty; certainty derives from intuition and deduction; certainty requires systematic doubt (methodological skepticism ); this systematic doubt leads to indubitably clear and necessary first principles from which all necessary and genuine knowledge can be deduced (e.g., the science of geometry). The Cartesian method invokes 4 rules as guides in moving from opinion to science: Never accept anything as true unless it is clearly and inescapably so; Analyze or reduce a problem to resovable parts; Organize particulars into general knowledge; Check for completeness and negative cases. Reality for man is 2 substances: matter (i.e., extension in space and time); and mind (unextended thinking spirit mirroring the material world). God is absolute substance, uncreated, unmoved, and perfect creator of matter and human minds. As the inner world of consciousness, mind is free and motivated by God. As the outer world of space, matter constitutes the mechanism of the world machine set in motion by God, who is first cause, and is continued in motion according to inherent and necessary laws of nature (determinism ).
René Descartes (; ; Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 159611 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist. Dubbed the father of modern western philosophy, much of subsequent Western philosophy is a response to his writings, which are studied closely to this day. He spent about 20 years of his life in the Dutch Republic.
رنه دکارت فيلسوف و رياضيدان فرانسوي ( 1650 - 1596 ). با مطالعات وسيعش در علوم رياضي بخصوص جبر و هندسه تحليلي از مشاهير زمان خود شناخته مي شود. او دستگاه مختصات را براي نمايش عددي نقاط صفحه ابداع کرد و هندسه تحليلي را بنيان نهاد.